Chapter 1: The Last Lesson

The story is set in the days of the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) Led by Bismarck. Prussia defeated France, and the French districts of Alsace and Lorraine passed into Prussian hands The two protagonists of the story, M. Hamel and Franz, belong to Alsace. M. Hamel is a French language teacher at a school and Franz is one of his students. The story revolves around how the war becomes a life-altering event for both characters. Characters Franz is an honest and very sensitive school boy. He accepts his fault of ignoring his lessons. M. Hamel is a strict teacher who is passionately patriotic. He breaks down at the end of his last

Chapter 2: Lost Spring

This chapter starts with the author’s first-hand experience with poverty and traditions prevailing in some Indian parts. The first part describes the plight of the poor ragpickers of Seemapuri; whereas the second part describes the miserable conditions of the bangle-makers (Firozabad) Characters Saheb is a Seemapuri based ragpicker in Delhi with simple dreams. He easily believes in promises being made to him. Mukesh belongs to a family of bangle-makers and dreams of breaking away teh traditional monotony and become a motor mechanic. Anees Jung (narrator) is a social worker who empathizes with the slum-dwellers and honestlu portrays their pitiable lives.

Chapter 3: Deep Water

The excerpt reveals how as a young boy, the narrator (Willam Douglas), nearly drowned in a swimming pool. He talks about his fear of water and how he finally overcame it later with sheer determination and will power.

Chapter 4: The Rattrap

The story is set amidst the Swedish iron mines and is based on the concept that goodness in any human being can be awakened through the power of understanding and love. The author has beautifully brought out loneliness and the need for human beings to bond with each other. Characters The Peddler is a petty and poor thief who sold rattraps for a living. The Crofter is a simple trusting person who is robbed by the peddler The Iron master is an ardent law-abiding person and a strict taskmaster, who trusts the peddler due to his daughter’s persuasion. Edla is the ironmaster’s daughter – a kind and fairly compassionate lady

Chapter 5: Indigo

This is an excerpt from Fischer’s book “The Life of Mahatma Gandhi: In 1942, the author visited Gandhi to narrate the incident which prompted his fight against the British Rajkuma to Gandhi with the problem of exploitation that was happening in his district. Gang place and freed the people of Champaran from tyranny.

Characters Gandhi (The Father of the Nation), helps the peasants of Champaran Rajkumar Shukla is poor peasant with a fairly weak physique whose

Gandhi to work for empowering Champaran’s peasants,


Poem 1: My Mother At Sixty-six

The poem is a lyrical Idiom and written entirely in a single sentence, punctuated poem brings out the complexity of most human relationships. The poet had gone to mother and was now driving back to the airport. On the way, she notices the mother and is struck with an instant realization that her mother is very old. This is very upset deeply.

ence, punctuated by commas. The The poet had gone to meet her she notices the pale face of her is very old. This upsets the poet

Poem 2: An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum

n In this poem, Stephen Spender, the poet, has concentrated on themes of social injustice an inequalities. He took a keen interest in politics and declared himself to be a socialist and Through the example of slum children, the poet strongly attacks those who are exploiting weaker sections of our society. The poet describes the communal inequalities which are usual in this society. In this poem the author describes the situation of the students of an elementary school. The school is located in a slum area. The poet wants everybody’s attention to these children. Poet wanted that the life of these students improves. He wanted them to get trained in order to become good citizens of our country and not criminals. An elementary school classroom in a slum summary gives a brief knowledge about the condition of the school as well as the students to c o

Poem 3: Keeping Quiet

This poem is written by Pablo Neruda. The poem is explosive as well as quiet at the same time Neruda speaks of a world of wisdom in a calm fashion Neruda believes that staunch activism is not the best way to get into the heart and minds of the masses. Consequently, the author speaks with much serenity. Furthermore, this serenity creates an aftermath of thought ripples in the minds of the reader. The poet wants the readers to take time out of their busy lives for retrospection and introspection. The poem is symbolic of stopping all activities and understanding the purpose of the world. Keeping Quiet appeals to the heart of the readers in contrast to the intellect. Through this poem, Neruda aims to get his readers thinking and pondering as opposed to intellectual stimulation This poem emphasizes the importance of self-introspection and silence. Furthermore, these two can transform the life of an individual Moreover, theu can also transform the face of the earth poet says that self-introspection and silence do not take much time to look within. Any individu can do it and examine oneself. This is easy and takes only as long as it will take someone to to twelve. During this time of introspection (self-examination), it is important for the to keep quiet. The individual must say nothing at all. Without silence and keeping introspection will not work. Silently introspecting will give the individual a strange lee and togetherness with all others.

Poem 4: A Thing of Beauty

The poem is based on a Greek legend and voices the poet’s eternal love for beauty. Endymion from Mount Lotmos, is a young poet and shepherd. He had the vi Gunthia (the Moon Goddess) and so wandered away through the forest and The theme of the poem is about youth nature & beauty, Keats loved beauty to the extent that he 

almost worshipped it

Poem 5: A Roadside Stand

This is a deeply moving poem as it vividly depicts the plight and the complex dynamics that influence simple rural folk It tells the sad condition of insufficiently fed poor people who are often fooled by the cunning people who are responsible for their current pathetic state. The poet cannot bear their sadness; so he sympathizes deeply with the rural people.

Poem 6: Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers

The poem illustrates the poet’s feminist concerns and presents the incessant conflicts and struggles a woman goes through in a male chauvinistic society. Aunt Jennifer is symbolic of women all over the world, who are victims of oppression at the hands of the patriarchy-driven system.


SUPPLEMENTARY Chapter 1: The Third Level

The story takes you to a musterious world, somewhere between our unfulfilled desires, expectations, and dreams. The story deals with the curious experience of Charley. One day, Charley reaches the third level while taking the subway for his home but in reality, there are only two levels of stations of New York’s Grand Central Railway Station The third level is actually an intersection of time and space, a journey back in time, something akin to the narrator’s imagination. It is seen as Charley’s medium of escape from the hardships and daily pressures of life.

Characters Charley is a 31-year-old male and a daily subway commuter. Louisa is Charley’s wife, who is worried about her husband coming late. Sam is Charley’s Psychiatrist. He serves as proof for the existence of the Third level at the Grand Central Station

Chapter 4: The Enemy

This is a Second World War time heart-rendering story of the conflict between man’s head and heart. An American sailor washed ashore in a dying state, is found at the doorstep of Dr. Sadao Hoki is torn between his duty as a doctor and as a patriotic Japanese. His heart is telling him to save the prisoner (listen to his emotion) whereas, his mind is fighting to turn him over to the police govern by reason).

Characters Dr. Sadao Hoki is an accomplished surgeon and an eminent scientist who resolves successfully the conflict between his patriotic duty and his duty to save the life of people. Hana is Dr. Sadao’s wife who helps him operate on the American despite her physical discomfort. Tom portrays is a typical American soldier, who thinks most Japanese are cruel and inhumane. The General is an old and selfish man, who just wants Sadao to treat his illness.

Chapter 5: Should Wizard Hit Mommy?

It is a children’s story dealing with the serious theme of good parenting and the adult tendency to curb the curious and questioning mind of a child. Every story is a slight variation of the same story. Joanne, being very young, fails to realize the true worth of originalitu. Jack tries hard to convince her that one should not change one’s identity or personality just to get accepted by society. Jack tries to teach Jo moral values through his stories.

ned father and a

ind frankly impatient

Insists on having her

Characters Jack is the father of four-year-old girl Joanne. He is a very loving and concerned fath husband who tells stories every day to his daughter Jo. Joanne (also called Jo’) is Jack’s four-year-old intelligent and inquisitive and fronklu daughter. Roger Skunk gets the wizard to give him a pleasant smell, but his Mommy insists on

way with Roger by forcing him to follow tradition. She ultimately gets the change rever Chapter 6: On the face of it

It is a play that features Mr. Lamb and Derry who meet Mr. Lamb in his garden. Both choro suffer from physical disabilities (impairments). Mr. Lamb has a very positive mindset and life as it comes to him and going with the flow. On the other hand, Derry is quite det withdrawn in general. The chance meeting changes Derry’s perspective on life as Mr. Lamb to develop hope in him and show him the bright side of life.


Tour IT too Mr. Lamb is an old man who is handicapped (crippled). Derry (also known as Derek) is a 14-year-old boy with one side of his face disfigured in ane mindset and he takes u is quite defiant and on life as Mr. Lomb is able

Chapter 1: Evens Tries An O-Level

The story is very gripping. James Roderick Evans is a prisoner in Jail who is appeal O-Level German Examination. He is not interested in the language and is using the examine as a coy to plan his escape from the prison. The prison officials take every possible precaution sill Evans escapes right from under their noses

Characters Evans is a young and cunning kleptomaniac who specializes in escaping from prison The Governor acts as the gullible head of Oxford prison. Jackson is an experienced prison offcer. Yet Evans manages to escape from under his nose Stephens is a newly-recruited prison offcer. Mc Leery is an Evans accomplice who disguises himself as an invigilator.